First-ever F4E clip about Vacuum Vessel now available

F4E News - di, 21/05/2019 - 02:00
The clip explains F4E’s work together with eight European companies and ITER Organization in the manufacturing of this huge structure.

Open Doors Day | An intense and unforgettable experience

ITER - ma, 20/05/2019 - 20:07

Saturday was Jacques's birthday. At age 90, the long-retired engineer from Aix-en-Provence had only one item on his wish list: to visit ITER for a third time and "see the progress of the Tokamak." Jacques was lucky: his birthday this year coincided with the 14th edition of the ITER Open Doors Day—a twice-a-year opportunity for the public to take the full measure of the ongoing works on the ITER construction site in Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, southern France.
The Open Doors Day has come a long way since the event's inception in October 2011. The first edition had little to show: a "near-finished" Poloidal Field Coils Winding Facility, a "forest of pylons" in the electrical switchyard, and a 17-metre-deep excavation where installation work had just begun on the anti-seismic system of the Tokamak Complex.
Eight-and-a-half years later, the ITER installation is a massive presence. More than 70 percent of civil work to First Plasma has been completed, spectacular assembly tools are in place, and giant components are taking shape on site.
For the 800 visitors who passed through the worksite gates on Saturday, the experience was intense and unforgettable. As they walked from the Cryostat Workshop, where the base section of the cryostat is in the last stages of fabrication ... past the lower cylinder (now cocooned on site) ... through the lofty Assembly Hall ... and finally into the depths of the Tokamak Complex, they were able to take the full measure of ITER in both its scientific and industrial dimensions.
The success of an Open Doors Day rests on faultless organization¹, the dedication of dozens of volunteers, and a collective enthusiasm for explaining and sharing what ITER is about. All these pre-requisites and more were fulfilled by the participants in the 14th edition on 18 May.
Scientists traded the complex equations of plasma physics they are familiar with for simple and concrete explanations and examples accessible to the lay public; engineers discarded their technical jargon to convey the challenges of ITER construction.
For everyone involved the reward was in the eyes of the children exploring a 3D rendition of the ITER machine, or in the eyes of their parents gasping at the sheer size of the sub-assembly tools and the unique strangeness of the Tokamak Pit.
¹Open Doors Day is organized by the ITER Organization in close collaboration with the European Domestic Agency, Fusion for Energy, and its contractors Engage, Apave, Energhia, etc. Close to 50 volunteers participated in the 14th edition. Representatives of "Les petits débrouillards," a national network that promotes scientific and technical education, were also present to provide hands-on experiments on magnetism and electricity.

F4E and EFLs test TBM technology and equipment

F4E News - ma, 20/05/2019 - 02:00
F4E is working together with EFLs to test several TBM candidate technologies in order to demonstrate their performance and reliability.

Steel giants arrive on ITER site

F4E News - ma, 20/05/2019 - 02:00
The massive roof pillars of the Tokamak building are here.

ITER physics school | Ten years of lectures now available

ITER - ma, 13/05/2019 - 18:58

The lectures from ten ITER International Schools held since 2007 have been collected and are now available through a dedicated webpage on the ITER website.
In anticipation of the beginning of ITER's construction, the Aix-Marseille University and the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) together with ITER Organization launched a series of "ITER International Schools," whose main goal is to offer advanced graduate students, recent PhDs, and young researchers a complete picture of both the theoretical and experimental aspects of tokamak physics. The school aims at preparing young researchers to tackle the current and anticipated challenges at magnetic fusion devices, and spreading the global knowledge required for the effective exploitation of ITER's scientific potential.
The ITER International School (IIS) is jointly hosted and organized every two years by the Aix-Marseille University and the ITER Organization and alternates between Aix-en-Provence, France, and sites within the ITER Members. The first ITER school—in July 2007 in Aix-en-Provence, France—was organized on the topic of turbulent transport in fusion plasmas. Nine different editions have followed: Fukuoka, Japan, on magnetic confinement (2008); Aix-en-Provence on plasma-surface interactions (2009); Austin, Texas (US) on magneto-hydro-dynamics (2010); Aix-en-Provence on energetic particles (2011); Ahmedabad, India, on radio-frequency heating (2012); Aix-en-Provence on high performance computing in fusion science (2014); Hefei, China, on transport and pedestal physics in tokamaks (2015); Aix-en-Provence on the physics of disruptions and control (2017); and, finally, Daejeon (Korea) on physics and technology of power flux handling in tokamaks (2019). The next ITER International School is planned in Aix-en-Provence, France, in 2020.
Over the last decade, the school has covered a very wide range of topics in the areas of experimental and modelling fusion physics and engineering. The choice of ''school format'' for IIS was adopted due to the need to prepare future scientists/engineers on a range of different topics and to provide them with a wide overview of the interdisciplinary skills required by the ITER Project.
The lecturers at the schools are leading specialists from research organizations within the ITER Members and from the ITER Organization. Their lectures, together with the proceedings published for some school editions, represent a wealth of knowledge on fusion and ITER. The ITER Organization and Aix-Marseille University, supported by the organizers and lecturers at the past schools, have thus taken action to collect this priceless knowledge and make it accessible for future generations of fusion scientists and engineers, particularly for post-graduate students and young researchers who are the primary attendants of the schools.
The ITER Organization and Aix Marseille University would like to warmly thank the school organizers and lecturers at the ten ITER International Schools for making the lectures available.
Please see the new resource on the ITER website here.

Beam operations resume at LIPAc

F4E News - vr, 10/05/2019 - 02:00
Delegates from Europe and Japan follow the action from the control room.

JT-60SA’s heaviest component, the central solenoid, now inserted

F4E News - di, 07/05/2019 - 02:00
JT-60SA's single heaviest component, the central solenoid, has been inserted into the heart of the machine today.

Central solenoid | First of 7 modules completed

ITER - ma, 06/05/2019 - 18:58

When ITER begins operations in 2025, its plasma will be initiated by the largest stacked pulsed superconducting magnet ever built—the ITER central solenoid. The US ITER magnets team, based at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is overseeing the fabrication of the central solenoid modules, support structures, and assembly tooling. A major milestone was reached this spring when vendor General Atomics completed fabrication of the first of seven modules.
"General Atomics has done an outstanding job to reach the difficult and important milestone of completing module 1 fabrication," said Wayne Reiersen, US ITER Central Solenoid Magnets Team Leader. "This is the culmination of an eight-year effort involving concurrent engineering of the module design, the creation of a facility in which these powerful superconducting magnets could be built and tested, the qualification of the manufacturing processes, and the building of this first-of-a-kind module."
The next step for the module is intensive testing to ensure that the component is ready to perform in the ITER Tokamak. The module has already completed the first Paschen voltage test as well as a global leak test.
The central solenoid will be installed in the centre of the ITER machine, and will drive up to 45,000 amps of current in each module during plasma operation. Six modules will be stacked to form the 17-metre-tall solenoid, while the seventh module will serve as a spare.
Fabrication of each module requires multiple fabrication steps spread out over 24 months. 
For a detailed view of the module manufacturing process, see "Building the Heart of ITER" on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory YouTube channel.

Disruption mitigation | JET gets an injection

ITER - ma, 29/04/2019 - 22:15

A shattered pellet injector using the same technology as that planned for disruption mitigation on ITER will be tested soon on the JET tokamak at the Culham Centre for Fusion Energy (UK). Technical commissioning of the components is underway.
At the Culham Centre for Fusion Energy in the UK, a global team has been working together to install and commission a shattered pellet injector on the European tokamak JET.
Contributors from US ITER, EUROfusion, the ITER Organization, Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (with support from the US Department of Energy, Fusion Energy Sciences) are interested in testing the shattered pellet technique for disruption mitigation on the world's largest operating tokamak, after performing similar experiments at General Atomic's DIII-D machine (US), which has a plasma volume four times smaller.
"We are very excited to start testing the new shattered pellet injector on JET—it is a core part of EUROfusion's upcoming program," said Joe Milnes, JET Operating Contract Senior Manager for the UK Atomic Energy Authority. "The dedication shown by the project team to get the equipment installed and commissioned has been vital, and I'm sure they will feel immensely proud when the first shattered pellets are injected and the first results are published."
In order to produce a self-heated, burning plasma on ITER, a disruption mitigation system is essential. Plasma disruptions can produce large heat loads, electromagnetic forces, and runaway electron beams. After investigating different designs, ITER partners concluded in a 2017 international workshop that the injection of frozen pellets of deuterium, neon, and/or argon will be the baseline method for the ITER system. Experiments on the DIII-D tokamak in San Diego, California, produced findings that shattered pellet injection leads to more effective thermal mitigation than another technique that was investigated—massive gas injection—with deeper penetration of the fragment spray. 
"The extrapolation of shattered pellet injection performance to ITER is greatly enhanced by employing an injector on JET to see how the mitigation metrics scale with plasma size and energy. This will give us higher confidence in the predicted mitigation outcome on ITER," said Larry Baylor, distinguished scientist at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Fusion Energy Division. "A unique feature of JET is that it has an ITER-like wall of beryllium and tungsten, which influences disruption behavior."
Shattered pellet injection involves cryogenically freezing pellets of deuterium, neon, argon, or some combination in a specially designed cryogenic "pipe gun." The pellet is injected into the plasma at speeds of 500-1800 km per hour when a disruption is detected. By shattering the pellets in a curved tube before the material enters the vacuum vessel, it is possible to form collimated sprays of pellet material that penetrate deeply and rapidly into the plasma. For ITER, a sufficient quantity of material must be delivered to the plasma when a disruption is detected, as the ITER plasma volume is ten times greater than JET's. This quantity will be achieved with multiple shattered pellets and multiple injectors.
The shattered pellet injector installed on JET is similar to those planned for use on ITER, but scaled to JET plasma parameters. The injector will utilize three distinct pellets, sized from 4.5 mm to 12.5 mm, depending on the experiment.
"The experiments will help answer questions about whether shattered pellet injection will remove energy from the plasma fast enough and uniformly enough to effectively mitigate disruptions in a large tokamak," said Baylor. "We'll also learn how the physics of shattered pellet injector disruption mitigation scales to larger, more energetic plasmas."
Planning is already underway for other injector experiments on the KSTAR tokamak in Korea. In the KSTAR experiments, two identical 3-barrel shattered pellet injector systems will be deployed to mimic the planned multi-injector approach at ITER. These experiments are part of the efforts of the ITER Disruption Mitigation Task Force to validate design choices for the ITER system and to develop the technology to an industrial level to face the challenges in the ITER environment.

Lower cylinder | A transfer that felt like art

ITER - di, 16/04/2019 - 21:52

Art has little to do with the transfer of a giant component. On Monday however, as ITER was preparing to celebrate Leonardo da Vinci's 500th anniversary, science, technology and industry conspired to provide a strikingly spectacular and beautiful event. As the set of trailers carrying the lower cylinder of the ITER cryostat slowly crawled out of the Cryostat Workshop, everything combined to create an awesome view: the minimalist architecture of the workshop; the cylindrical component all draped in white, and the shimmering steel of the Assembly Hall ... all against the backdrop of the intense blue of a spring sky in Provence.
The lower cylinder of the ITER cryostat is but one section of the giant thermos that will envelop the ITER Tokamak. Standing 12 metres high, it represents one-third of the total height of the ITER machine. As operators stood close to it, carrying out the highly delicate transfer operation, one could measure how tall, large and massive ITER will be.
Transferring the near-500-tonne load from its assembly site to the storage area a few dozen metres away required no less than four self-propelled modular transporters arranged in a square and moving in perfect coordination. Particularly impressive was the sharp 90-degree turn that the trailers had to take in order to reach the storage area—192 independent wheels slowing rotating at different angles, like small appendages of a powerful living organism.
To date, the lower cylinder is the heaviest load to be moved on the ITER platform. Solidly encased in its steel frame and carefully cocooned in air-tight material, it will remain in storage until the time comes to move it into the assembly pit.
The operation on Monday was a key milestone involving a dozen stakeholders—the cryostat team; heavy load transport specialist Sarens; metrology experts from ITER; global logistics provider DAHER, and many others (see box).
Transferring the lower cylinder to the storage area has freed a large working space inside the Cryostat Workshop. Soon, this space will be occupied by the assembly and welding operations for the upper cylinder whose segments are already on their way from their manufacturing location in India.

Prototypes for ITER In-Vessel equipment completed

F4E News - wo, 10/04/2019 - 02:00
F4E collaborates with Leading, TCCP, Tecnalia to test Cooling Blanket Manifold support structures.

Neutral beam | The system that makes the Tokamak feel small

ITER - ma, 08/04/2019 - 23:10

ITER is a big machine—by far the largest fusion device ever built. But there is a system just a few metres away that makes it look like a mere appendage to something much larger. The neutral beam system, with its three, possibly four, massive injectors is the real beast at the heart of the ITER installation.
Construction work underway in the Tokamak Building already gives a sense of how big the equipment for the neutral beam system will be. Giant circular cut-outs in the rebar at level 3 (L3) of the building—more than 3 metres in diameter each—will provide the passageway for high-voltage "bushings," which allow electrical power, cooling, and other services such as diagnostics to reach the neutral beam injectors hosted below.
Just below the bushings, a vast, cavernous space has been reserved for the neutral beam cell where the beam injectors will be located. The largest devices (the heating neutral beam injectors) are sized like steam locomotives—25 metres long, 5 metres high and 5 metres wide—with a chimney-like bushing reaching up 9 metres to connect to the openings on the third floor. The injectors will be connected to the Tokamak at L1 level—exactly across from the Tokamak's mid-plane and the equatorial port openings.
A neutral beam injector is essentially a particle accelerator. Its function is to deliver high-energy particles to the heart of the plasma. ITER is planning two one-million-volt (MV), 40A heating neutral beam injectors (and is making a space reservation for a possible third) as well as a smaller neutral beam line (100 kV, 60A) for diagnostic purposes
The heating neutral beam injectors will each contribute 16.5 MW of heating power to the plasma; the diagnostics neutral beam will provide information on the helium ash density produced by the D-T fusion reactions in the fusion plasma.
At the entry end of the heating neutral beam, a beam source generates the electrically charged deuterium ions that are accelerated through a succession of five grids (each separated by a 200 kV electrical potential) to the required energy of 1 MV at the exit end of the beam source, a "neutralizer" rips them of their electrical charges to become "neutrals," allowing them to penetrate the Tokamak's magnetic cage and, by way of multiple collisions with the particles inside the plasma, raise plasma temperature to the point where fusion reactions can occur. The heating neutral beams are designed to be able to operate during the entire plasma duration, up to 3,600 seconds.
Neutral beams are routinely used in tokamak devices as the workhorses of auxiliary heating. In ITER however they will be considerably larger and more powerful than in any previous fusion device.
Generating a 1 MV beam that will deliver 16.5 MW to the plasma requires a unique power infrastructure. Located just outside the Tokamak Complex, two large buildings will host the transformers, the AC/DC converters and the vast high-voltage hall that will feed power to the neutral beam system by way of transmission lines entering the Tokamak Building through the "north wall" at the L3 level.
There is only one example of a high-voltage installation more powerful than ITER's. In China, where high-voltage DC current is used to deliver electrical power to populations far away from the productions sites, a 1.2 MV system was recently established to push power from Xinjiang, in the northeast corner of the country, to the megacities in the east—1.2 MV in China for a 3,000-kilometre distance; 1 MV in ITER for slightly more than one hundred metres ...


ITER Neutral Beam Test Facility receives a new component

F4E News - do, 04/04/2019 - 02:00
F4E and De Pretto Industrie deliver the MITICA beam source vessel.

ITER Research Plan | The 400-page scenario

ITER - wo, 03/04/2019 - 11:47

The ITER Organization has just made publically available the most recent version of the ITER Research Plan, a 400-page document that describes the present vision for operating the ITER Tokamak from First Plasma through high-fusion-gain deuterium-tritium operation.
The ITER Research Plan was initially developed during the ITER Design Review in 2007-2008 in order to analyze the experimental program towards high-fusion-gain deuterium-tritium operation. In the ensuing years it was further elaborated to identify the main lines of physics R&D required to support preparation for ITER operation, and to incorporate elements of the testing program for tritium breeding technology in the fusion environment.
Since 2017—with the collaboration of fusion science experts from the ITER Members' physics communities—the ITER Research Plan has been undergoing revision in order to reflect the revised baseline cost and schedule for the project—Baseline 2016.
Baseline 2016 identifies the date of First Plasma as December 2025 and lays out a multi-phase approach to full deuterium-tritium operation in 2035, in which periods of machine operation alternate with shutdown periods for further assembly. This "staged approach" to assembly is considered to represent the best compromise between the desire of all partners to advance quickly, technical constraints (including risk), and the financial constraints of the Members. _To_143_Tx_With the acceptance of the revised ITER Baseline by the ITER Council in November 2016¹, a study was launched to bring major elements of the Research Plan in line with the framework of the staged approach to ITER construction to ensure that the operation of ITER required to commission ancillary systems was consistent with the phased installation of these systems. Also taken into account were the most recent advances in physics research.

In the staged approach, two main phases are foreseen following First Plasma:

  • Pre-Fusion Plasma Operation — in which the basic controls and protection systems are demonstrated, and the auxiliary heating systems and diagnostics are fully commissioned. (Two operational campaigns are expected.)
  • Fusion Power Operation — in which ITER fusion performance goals are demonstrated. ITER fusion power production goals are the production of 500 MW of fusion power with an energy gain (Q) of Q=10 for >300 s, and in-principle steady-state operation with Q=5. The development of long-pulse inductive plasmas² for fusion technology development is also envisioned. (The ITER Research Plan anticipates at least three operating campaigns to be required to achieve these goals.)
The revision of the ITER Research Plan has involved a re-analysis of ITER plasma scenarios in each phase and the identification of open issues that need to be resolved by physics R&D with support of the ITER Members' fusion communities.
"This revision of the ITER Research Plan was a major effort, spearheaded by my predecessor, David Campbell," said Tim Luce, Director of the Science & Operations Department. "It combines the detailed knowledge of the ITER Organization staff about the ITER facility with expertise from the Members' fusion research programs. We are especially grateful for the delegates who were appointed by the Members to help revise this document. This release is the first time the ITER Research Plan has been publicly available, which we hope will enable a stronger partnership between the fusion community and the ITER Organization to realize the ITER goals."
The Plan will continue to be updated over the years to reflect the results of continuing fusion R&D and the detailed implementation of the staged approach to ITER assembly.
Click here to view/download the "ITER Research Plan within the Staged Approach" from the ITER Technical Reports page of the website.
¹ The overall project schedule was approved by all ITER Members at the Nineteenth ITER Council in November 2016; the overall project cost was approved "ad referendum," meaning that each Member is seeking approval of project costs through respective governmental budget processes.
² An inductive plasma is a tokamak plasma in which the circulating current is sustained using the central solenoid, as opposed to a steady-state plasma in which the plasma current is sustained by heating and current drive sources and plasma-driven processes.

IBF 2019 – 1100 business speed dates in search of commercial romance

F4E Events - wo, 03/04/2019 - 02:00
ITER Parties give companies and laboratories an exclusive preview of the upcoming business opportunities.

IBF/19 | ITER and industry speak a common language

ITER - ma, 01/04/2019 - 19:53

There is more to the French Riviera than sunny beaches, skimpy bathing suits, oversized yachts, and a world-class film festival. The stretch of coastline that extends from Saint Tropez to the Italian border also stands for scientific research and high technology. Located a few kilometres north of Antibes, Sophia Antipolis—a French equivalent of California's Silicon Valley—is home to more than 2,000 companies, most of them high-tech, and scores of laboratories, research institutes, public universities and engineering schools. Last week, as Sophia Antipolis celebrated the 50th anniversary of its creation, more than one thousand industry representatives gathered in nearby Antibes to meet with ITER stakeholders and hear updates on the project's progress, needs and upcoming tenders.
Since its first edition in 2007 in Nice, France, the ITER Business Forum (IBF) has grown dramatically in scope and attendance. IBF/19, organized in Antibes on 27-28 March by Agence Iter France¹, was attended by the representatives of close to 500 companies and research institutes from 25 countries (1,110 people in all). The ever-increasing number of participants is not the only measure of success, however. What was palpable during the two days of presentations and business meetings was the intensity of the interactions—ITER and the world industry have now found a common language.
"When they see the pictures of worksite and manufacturing progress, industry representatives gets a clear message: ITER has now entered a very decisive phase and industry has a key role to play," says ITER Divertor Section leader Frédéric Escourbiac, his pockets filled with the business cards collected during the two-day forum. "What we have seen in the successive editions of IBF is a virtual community that has progressively acquired flesh and bone. The body is now strong and fit. We can talk face to face and it makes interaction much easier and much more productive."
As at all previous editions, IBF-19 began with a series of introductory presentations that highlighted progress accomplished and challenges to come. Following a general introduction by Jacques Vayron, the director of Agence Iter France, ITER Director-General Bernard Bigot compared ITER to an extremely complex Lego construction, saying that "if one single piece, however small, is missing the whole project will suffer." Gerassimos Thomas, the Deputy Director-General for Energy at the European Commission, acknowledged that, "thanks to Director-General Bigot and with the help of the Domestic Agencies and all stakeholders, the project has dramatically turned around. [...] We now have an impeccable case to support ITER."
_To_155_Tx_In a passionate demonstration of how ITER was "making history," ITER Chief Operating Officer and Deputy-Director General Gyung-Su Lee described the inevitable "uncertainties and unknowns" of a first-of-a-kind machine but promised the audience that they would soon be "listening to the beautiful sound of neutrons"—the heavenly music of fusion "tamed and utilized to generate energy."
Representatives of each of the seven ITER Domestic Agencies took the stage in quick succession describing, sometimes with humour (and always with precision and conviction) the challenges faced and the accomplishments achieved.
"The future will be painted by you," Gerassimos Thomas told the hundreds of industry representatives gathered in the amphitheatre on the first day of IBF-19. Through technical presentations, workshops and one-to-one meetings, it was soon clear that the "future" was reaching far beyond ITER.
"We need to have as small a gap as possible between the end of ITER assembly and the engineering phase of DEMO," stressed Tony Donné, Programme Manager for EUROfusion. "Too large a gap would lead to the loss of industrial interest and expertise that is critical for the next-step machine and the future of fusion."
What IBF-19 demonstrated is that the relationship between ITER (and more broadly fusion) and industry has now reached a turning point. Beyond the experimental machine that is ITER, a whole new field of activity and innovation—encompassing hundreds of different technologies—is now opening before hundreds of companies throughout the world as the steps after ITER are being planned.
And at the same time, the very role of industry is being redefined—graduating from "supplier" to "partner." In Europe, dozens of companies are already involved in the conception of DEMO; in China 30 different entities, both industrial and academic, are at work on the China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR)—a "super ITER" that will evolve into a fusion reactor near-prototype, and whose engineering design is set to be completed in 2020.
Since its relatively humble beginnings in 2007, the ITER Business Forum has been a key facilitator in this process.
Click here to view a video walkthrough of IBF-19. 
¹With the participation of ITER Organization, Fusion for Energy and other Domestic Agencies, and with the financial support of local authorities.  

Power to the magnets

F4E News - ma, 01/04/2019 - 02:00
F4E hands over to ITER Organization the buildings that will house the electrical equipment from China, Russia and Korea.

First design of Diagnostics "cable gatekeeper" approved

F4E News - do, 28/03/2019 - 01:00
The first design of the feedthroughs which will work as the "gatekeeper" for the cables between the inside of ITER's Vacuum Vessel to the outside wall is now approved.

Europe starts manufacturing the ITER Pre-Compression Rings

F4E News - vr, 22/03/2019 - 01:00
F4E and CNIM deploy workforces, expertise and a lot of pultruded laminate.

DEMO unveiled

F4E News - di, 19/03/2019 - 01:00
F4E and EUROfusion offer a sneak preview of the fusion power plant that could generate more than 100 MW of net electricity.