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What is DEMO?

EFDA - di, 19/12/2017 - 17:46

DEMO, the demonstration power plant, will be the successor of ITER and the next step on the way to realise fusion energy. Its purpose is to develop and test technologies, physics regimes and control routines for operating a fusion reactor not as a scientific experiment, but as a power plant. One of the key criteria for DEMO is the production of electricity (albeit not at the price and the quantities of commercial power plants).
ITER is the key facility of the EUROfusion roadmap, and EUROfusion allocates considerable resources to ITER and its accompanying experiments. The second phase of the roadmap is focussed on maximising ITER exploitation and on preparing the construction of DEMO. Building and operating DEMO, which will hook fusion electricity to the grid, is the subject of the last roadmap phase.

Additional information:
What will DEMO look like?

The post What is DEMO? appeared first on EUROfusion.

What is the triple product?

EFDA - di, 19/12/2017 - 15:20

Read more:
Fusion conditions

The triple product is a figure of merit used for fusion plasmas, closely related to the Lawson Criteria. It specifies that successful fusion will be achieved when the product of the three quantities – n, the particle density of a plasma, the confinement time,τ and the temperature, T – reaches a certain value. Above this value of the triple product, the fusion energy released exceeds the energy required to produce and confine the plasma. For deuterium-tritium fusion this value is about : nτT ≥ 5×1021 m-3 s KeV. JET has reached values of nτT of over 1021 m-3 s KeV.

The post What is the triple product? appeared first on EUROfusion.

A very significant year

ITER - ma, 18/12/2017 - 16:17

In 2017, the ITER Organization celebrated its 10th anniversary and the project passed the halfway mark on the road to First Plasma. All the milestones set by the ITER Council were met and—as preparation for machine assembly began—the cryoplant, the twin Magnet Power Conversion buildings, and the cooling tower zone received their first equipment.
 

In the Poloidal Field Coil Winding Facility, Europe began manufacturing poloidal field coil #5 (17 metres in diameter). Nearby in the Cryostat Workshop, Indian contractors started work on a second cryostat section—the lower cylinder—and continued to advance welding and non-destructive examination testing of the cryostat base.
In factories on three continents, the ITER Members continued to manufacture strategic ITER components that were delivered as planned to the ITER site. The project's visibility—both here in southern France and in media outlets the world over—increased dramatically.
 
All in all, 2017 was a very significant year.
 
Like it has done since 2006, Newsline will continue in the New Year to tell the story of the ITER adventure, and all of its human and technical achievements. See you again in January.

Poland unleashes its potential in big science projects

F4E Events - ma, 18/12/2017 - 01:00
F4E, CERN, ESO and ESS unveil an array of business opportunities.

Hijacking a jet: how Culham was chosen

EFDA - do, 14/12/2017 - 14:47

(Picture: Another plane named Stuttgart landed at Cologne Bonn Airport, on 18 October 1977, with the German special forces GSG 9 team (seen) and hostages from the hijacked ‘Landshut’ plane. Picture: DPA Bundesarchiv)

Exactly 40 years ago, the German plane ‘Landshut’ was hijacked by terrorists. With the help of many international partners, the West-German Government managed to free all 86 passengers at Mogadishu airport. Since then, rumour has it that the final decision regarding the location of the Joint European Torus (JET) was directly linked to these events. In fact, the incident in Somalia had strengthened the consensus but did, after all, not actually tip the scale towards Culham.  

On 25th October, France, Denmark, Ireland, Netherlands and the UK had spoken out in favour of the UK site. Germany and Luxemburg had supported Garching as the host and Belgium and Italy had abstained. Coming to this agreement had been a major debate between England and Germany for years and had almost led to the end of JET, even before its construction had begun.

The hijacking of the ‘Landshut’

To this date, rumours abound that Germany gave up their ambitions to host JET in order to thank the British government for their support during the terrorist attack. On 13th October 1977, four members of the “Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine” hijacked the Lufthansa Boeing ‘Landshut’, a Lufthansa Boeing. The British government did, in fact, supply a specific type of grenade which was used successfully by the German Special Forces team when they stormed the plane.

But was that the price that was paid in order to host the future most developed fusion experiment in the world?

A successful joint rescue

If you study the official, publicly available, German documents carefully, you start to doubt it. In fact, British Prime Minister James Callaghan and German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt had met on 18th October 1977, a previously arranged meeting, when the news broke that the ‘Landshut’ passengers had been freed safely. Both country leaders now came together with revived spirits in the light of the successful joint rescue operation. On the agenda were highly sensitive topics, most of them discussing European-related topics, such as issues in the Middle East.

Interestingly enough, the location of the Joint European Torus was on that list too. The whole project was already facing the dawn of a closing-down phase. Since the beginning of the year, discussions about its location had remained in deadlock with the Council of Ministers in Brussels. The contracts of international scientists already on the existing JET Management Committee were about to end.

Landshut is the name of a Lufthansa-aircraft hijacked in Mogadishu on 13th October 1977. Later the machine was stormed and all passengers freed. Due to the 40th anniversary Fusion in Europe took a look at the story which had led to JET’s final destination, in a way.

UK to host JET for the common European idea

According to the German minutes of the meeting, the atmosphere between Schmidt and Callaghan seemed friendly and respectful. Schmidt expressed his gratitude for the English support during the ‘Landshut’ attack; Callaghan responded that Germany was actually fighting against terrorists attacking the democratic freedom worldwide. The talks then continued and arrived at the topic of the JET site. In fact, the British Prime Minister stated that one should not overrate the dividing elements in their relationship. Anyhow, the British government eagerly wanted to host a joint European device in order to demonstrate their strong commitment to the common idea of Europe. Either way, should the Council in Brussels decide on Garching, England will not veto it.

Consensus achieved

The German chancellor also acted in an accommodating manner towards this friendly opening. He admitted that the JET site had become much too prestigious and should rather be discussed on a professional than a political level. Schmidt would therefore also agree on a consensus.
What had been a matter of debate for over two years was then resolved by the final decision of the Council of Research Ministers, just a few days after the Callaghan-Schmidt meeting in Bonn. The Management Committee at JET was relieved and started to implement the urgent tasks which then finally lead to JET’s first plasma in 1983.

(Source: Akten zur auswaertigen Politik der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1977 (1. Januar bis 30. Juni), S.1410ff)

The Joint European Torus in Culham, England, is still the most developed fusion experiment in the world. It is the only fusion device able to operate with Deuterium-Tritium. In 2016, the United Kingdom decided to leave the European Union and with it to exit the Euratom treaty. The British Government has just signalled major support for the Culham facilities. It will invest 86 million pounds in the nuclear fusion research programme. With this major backing, CCFE’s CEO Ian Chapman is willing to take up JET’s historical heritage and to continue it into the future: “Fusion is entering the delivery era. In the longer term, it means the UK will be at the forefront of developing fusion and bringing cleaner energy to the world.”

 

 

The post Hijacking a jet: how Culham was chosen appeared first on EUROfusion.

JT-60SA cryostat vessel body manufacturing completed and on its way to Japan

F4E News - di, 12/12/2017 - 01:00
Following the full completion of the manufacturing, the JT-60SA cryostat vessel body’s 12 large sectors are currently making their way from

Building ITER | Halfway to First Plasma

ITER - ma, 11/12/2017 - 17:05

It's been a long road and we haven't reached our destination yet. But on its way to operation, ITER has just passed a significant milestone: according to the stringent metrics that measure project performance, 50 percent of the "total construction work scope through First Plasma" is now complete.
The performance metrics used in ITER assign a relative weight to every activity category within the project. Design, for instance, accounts for 24 percent; buildings construction and manufacturing for 48 percent; assembly and installation for 20 percent.
After having compounded the percentage of completion of each category, the metrics produce a figure for the totality of the work scope through the launch of operations ("First Plasma"). Design, which accounts for approximately one-fourth of the scope, is now close to 95 percent complete; manufacturing and building, which represents almost half of the total activities is close to 53 percent complete. Do a little math and the result is clear: in terms of activities that need to be completed, ITER is now halfway to its first operational event.
The passing of this milestone reflects "the collective contribution and commitment of ITER's seven Members," writes Director-General Bernard Bigot in a top-level communication to officials in the governments of the participating nations.
The reaction of the world media to the passing of this highly symbolic milestone was unprecedented: close to 600 publications, from a total of 41 countries, hailed the accomplishment. Global news agencies, newspapers and magazines (from the Guardian in the UK to Times of India), radio stations in the Czech Republic and Germany, and countless web sites in the United States, India, the United Arab Emirates, the Philippines or Australia ... all stressed the importance of what is at stake in ITER.
See a selection of articles here.

Read the Statement sent by the Director-General to all ITER Members (in English or in French).   Read the full press release in English or in French.  

Europe delivers to ITER Neutral Beam Test Facility the most powerful beam source to date

F4E News - ma, 11/12/2017 - 01:00
Commissioning and operation at SPIDER will start in early 2018 opening a new chapter for the heating systems of the biggest fusion device.

Building ITER | Halfway to First Plasma

ITER - wo, 06/12/2017 - 19:10

It has been a long road and we haven't reached our destination yet. But on its way to operation, ITER has just passed a significant milestone: according to the stringent metrics that measure project performance, 50 percent of the "total construction work scope through First Plasma" is now complete.
The performance metrics used in ITER assign a relative weight to every activity category within the project. Design, for instance, accounts for 24 percent; buildings construction and manufacturing for 48 percent; assembly and installation for 20 percent.
After having compounded the percentage of completion of each category, the metrics produce a figure for the totality of the work scope through the launch of operations ("First Plasma"). Design, which accounts for approximately one-fourth of the scope, is now close to 95 percent complete; manufacturing and building, which represents almost half of the total activities is close to 53 percent complete. Do a little math and the result is clear: in terms of activities that need to be completed, ITER is now halfway to its first operational event.
ITER is the most complex science project in human history and the passing of this highly symbolic milestone is no small achievement.
The passing of this milestone reflects "the collective contribution and commitment of ITER's seven Members," writes Director-General Bernard Bigot in a top-level communication to officials in the governments of the participating nations.


Read the Statement sent by the Director-General to all ITER Members (in English or in French).   Read the full press release in English or in French.  

Businesses, jobs, technology | ITER's impact on European economy and society

ITER - di, 05/12/2017 - 08:55

What are the economic, societal and scientific benefits for Europe stemming from its participation in ITER? And—looking ahead—what future impact can Europe expect from its role in this unique scientific project that aims to unlock the potential of fusion energy? These were the top questions discussed by 120 participants at the ITER Industry Day in Brussels, Belgium, on 4 December.
It was the first time that the European Commission had sent an invitation for an ITER Industry Day. And they all came: European business representatives, policy makers, scientists, civil society organizations, and the media.
The ITER Project already brings a host of concrete opportunities for industry, businesses and the research community. Over 400 European companies and 60 scientific and research entities—from more than 20 countries—have concluded contracts with the European Domestic Agency for a total of approximately EUR 4 billion.
The Italian company Belleli Energy is but one example of how ITER can help European businesses to grow and thrive through development opportunities and job creation: "Thanks to ITER, the staff of our company grew from 300 in 2010 to 1,000 today," reports CEO Paolo Fedeli. 
Spin-off technologies is another area with great potential. Participants discussed how spin-offs, spill-overs, start-ups and applications resulting from ITER-related contracts can promote development in other technological and industrial areas.
Jérôme Pamela, the chairman of EUROfusion, Europe's fusion energy think tank, pointed at ITER's impact on scientific research potential: "Facts speak for themselves. ITER, which provides us a common goal, is a key driver for 2,000 research positions that exist in the member states. Without ITER, there would be many fewer researchers involved."
It was not just about opportunities for Europe in Europe. As an international scientific project with 35 member states from three continents, ITER provides fertile ground worldwide for global technology cooperation, business opportunities, partnerships and innovation.

Celebrating 10 years of F4E

F4E Events - ma, 04/12/2017 - 01:00
An emotional night counting our achievements and highlighting how what we do can change the world.

Planning for the manufacturing of ITER’s first wall panels

F4E News - do, 30/11/2017 - 01:00
F4E workshop brings together companies to discuss how production could be automated.

Assembly preparation | The ballet of the Titans

ITER - ma, 27/11/2017 - 20:38


The stage is ready, some of the props are already in place, and the show will soon begin. It will be a grand production served by an international cast of highly skilled performers. The central theme? Twin Titans, in the form of giant tools dancing a mechanical ballet to contribute to the assembly of one of the most complex machines ever conceived.
The rafters of the Assembly Hall are the catwalk of this oversized theatre. They offer a breathtaking view of the ongoing work on the stage floor some 45 metres below.
To the right side of the 6,000-square-metre open space, technicians are busy preparing for the Titans' arrival, bolting semi-circular rail tracks to steel plates anchored deep into the floor, adjusting torque, and verifying alignment with laser optics.
The Twin Titans, SSAT-1 and SSAT-2 (for vacuum vessel Sector Sub-Assembly Tool), will travel along these tracks, opening and closing their arms to bring together and pre-assemble a vacuum vessel sector with a pair of toroidal field coils plus thermal shielding—for a total mass of 1,200 tonnes. The operation will be repeated nine times, once for each of the nine vacuum vessel sectors.
The Titans will operate in close cooperation with another giant tool—the double overhead crane that will deliver the sub-components to be assembled and, when completed, will carry each sub-assembly to the Tokamak well.
Load tests for the 1,500-tonne overhead crane will begin next week. But the dummy loads are already in place, stacked in the centre of the stage ... approximately 40 steel-and-concrete blocks that will stand in the place, for the time of the trials, of ITER's massive components.
Several tests will be performed: a static test at nominal capacity, followed by a dynamic test at 10 percent over-capacity (reproducing all of the operational movements of the crane) and a final test at 25 percent over-capacity to verify that the flexion of the 43-metre-long girders remains within specifications.
The actual production on stage will open in a little more than a year. It is expected to be one of the most spectacular in the history of science and industry.

Europe’s first ITER magnet to enter final stage of manufacturing

F4E News - di, 21/11/2017 - 01:00
The impressive component weighing 120 tonnes has departed from the ASG factory, La Spezia, Italy, and will travel by sea to Venice.

ITER Council | Project metrics confirm performance

ITER - ma, 20/11/2017 - 16:03


The governing body of the ITER Organization, the ITER Council, met for the twenty-first time on 15 and 16 November 2017 under the chairmanship of Won Namkung (Korea). Representatives from China, the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States reviewed a detailed set of reports and indicators covering both organizational and technical performance, and concluded that the project remains on track for success.

In November 2007—ten years ago exactly—the ITER Council convened for the first time in the history of the ITER Organization. Clearing had just begun on the ITER site, the ITER design was under review, and only 170 people were working in temporary offices, housed by ITER's host and neighbour—the CEA Cadarache research centre.
Twenty Council meetings later and a quantum leap forward, the ITER Organization assesses the level of manufacturing completion for First Plasma components and systems at 61 percent and the level of total construction work scope completion through First Plasma at 49 percent.
Since early 2016, the ITER Organization has been controlling and reporting project progress on the basis of high-level milestones. Whether related to construction, manufacturing or deliveries—or rather to programmatic milestones like recruitment and contract signatures—these milestones are underpinned in the schedule by the many thousands of activities that make up progress to First Plasma, with each one representing a firm achievement on the road to ITER operation.
During the two-day meeting, participants confirmed that the ITER Organization and the Domestic Agencies have achieved all Council-approved milestones for 2016 and 2017, maintaining strict adherence to the overall project schedule and critical path. Processes for schedule control, risk management and cooperation also continue to improve, with project performance metrics that now measure physical progress in construction, manufacturing, assembly and installation down to the level of each building system and component. 
The Council continued its candid discussions acknowledging continuing efforts made by each Member to overcome various challenges, which include ensuring approval of the cost baseline, as concluded at the Nineteenth ITER Council in November 2016 (IC-19¹). Council members reaffirmed their strong belief in the value of the project, and its mission and vision, and resolved to work together to find timely solutions to ensure ITER's success.
Photos from the twenty-first ITER Council (IC-21) can be viewed here.
Download the full press release in English or French.
¹ As stated in the press release of IC-19 on 27 November 2016, at that time: "The overall project schedule was approved by all ITER Members, and the overall project cost was approved ad referendum, meaning that it will now fall to each Member to seek approval of project costs through their respective governmental budget processes."

ITER Council: project metrics confirm performance

ITER - do, 16/11/2017 - 19:56

The governing body of the ITER Organization, the ITER Council, met for the twenty-first time on 15 and 16 November 2017 under the chairmanship of Won Namkung (Korea). Representatives from China, the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States reviewed a detailed set of reports and indicators covering both organizational and technical performance, and concluded that the project remains on track for success.

In November 2007—ten years ago exactly—the ITER Council convened for the first time in the history of the ITER Organization. Clearing had just begun on the ITER site, the ITER design was under review, and only 170 people were working on site, housed by ITER's host and neighbour—the CEA Cadarache research centre.
Twenty meetings later and a quantum leap forward, the ITER Organization assesses the level of manufacturing completion for First Plasma components and systems at 61 percent and the level of total construction work scope completion through First Plasma at 49 percent.
Since early 2016, the ITER Organization has been controlling and reporting project progress on the basis of high-level milestones. Whether related to construction, manufacturing or deliveries—or rather to programmatic milestones like recruitment and contract signatures—these milestones are underpinned in the schedule by the many thousands of activities that make up progress to First Plasma, with each one representing a firm achievement on the road to ITER operation.
During the two-day meeting, members confirmed that the ITER Organization and the Domestic Agencies have achieved all Council-approved milestones for 2016 and 2017, maintaining strict adherence to the overall project schedule and critical path.
Processes for schedule control, risk management and cooperation also continue to improve, with project performance metrics that now measure physical progress in construction, manufacturing, assembly and installation down to the level of each building system and component. 
The Council continued its candid discussions acknowledging continuing efforts made by each Member to overcome various challenges, which includes ensuring approval of the cost baseline, as concluded in IC-19¹. Council members reaffirmed their strong belief in the value of the project, and its mission and vision, and resolved to work together to find timely solutions to ensure ITER's success.
Photos from the twenty-first ITER Council (IC-21) can be viewed here.
Download the full press release in English or French.
¹ As stated in the press release of IC-19 on 27 November 2016, at that time: "The overall project schedule was approved by all ITER Members, and the overall project cost was approved ad referendum, meaning that it will now fall to each Member to seek approval of project costs through their respective governmental budget processes."

Europe reaches out to Japan to strengthen collaboration in ITER Remote Handling systems

F4E Events - wo, 15/11/2017 - 01:00
How will the two parties help their industries work closer together?

All five European Vacuum Vessel sectors are under fabrication

F4E News - wo, 15/11/2017 - 01:00
This parallel production of such a large number of geometrically complex mechanical sectors is in contrast to last year's production of one

COP 23 | Placing ITER on the global scene

ITER - ma, 13/11/2017 - 17:52


On the western bank of the Rhine and not far from the seat of the UN Climate Change Secretariat, world leaders are discussing how to push ahead for international joint action to tackle climate change and implement the 2015 Paris Agreement.
In complete silence, Fijian warriors walk into the assembly hall at the opening of the UN Climate Change Conference, COP23. They perform their traditional welcome ceremony of preparing and sharing the Kava drink made from the root of a local Fijian plant. The recipient is Barbara Hendricks, German Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety.
Looking very impressive even on a public display screen, it was a highly unusual opening for an international conference. But it drove home the message of urgency. As a Pacific island nation Fiji is extremely vulnerable to the impact of climate change; it is fitting indeed that Fiji is presiding over this conference, held from 6 to 17 November in the German city of Bonn.
"We are all sitting in the same canoe," said Frank Bainimarama, Prime Minister of Fiji, at the opening ceremony. "So let's make the hard decisions that have to be made for the sake of ourselves and the generations to come."
A few kilometers from the high-level political discussions is the Bonn Zone, where the global relevance of climate change is also visible. Countless meetings, discussions and workshops take place in side rooms, at exhibition stands, over coffee or in the halls. It is here where government offices, civil society activists, scientists, youth organizations, industry as well as several international organizations present their ideas, initiatives and actions to deal with the consequences of climate change.
With its quest for carbon-free, safe and abundant energy, ITER fits right into this vibrant and buzzing atmosphere. The ITER stand hosts a constant stream of visitors wanting to know more about the process of nuclear fusion, the progress with the building of the research reactor, or the scientific and technological challenges this ambitious project is facing.
Most visitors, having never heard of the project, are impressed. A German police officer compares the ambitious endeavor with the TV series Star Trek. A visitor from Canada, after taking a virtual tour of construction, feels that the work on site alone is futuristic.
The ITER stand attracts younger people in particular as they realize the advantages, hopefully in their lifetime, of a new source of clean energy. They are also particularly receptive to ITER's collaborative model—35 nations joining efforts across continents and borders—as a way of addressing important global issues.
As COP23 enters its second week expectations are high. It is hoped that the conference—with its 25,000 participants from all around the globe—will find a common understanding on practical actions and solutions to the many climate-change-related problems.
There is agreement among all on one issue: time is short. As Frank Bainimarama said at the opening: "Let's get this job done."

Nine rings to cope with ITER’s powerful magnetic fields

F4E News - ma, 13/11/2017 - 01:00
Discover how Europe is making progress with the manufacturing of the Pre-Compression Rings.

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